Hadamard editing of glutathione and macromolecule-suppressed GABA


The primary inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the major antioxidant glutathione (GSH) are compounds of high importance for the function and integrity of the human brain. In this study, a method for simultaneous J-difference spectral-edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of GSH and GABA with suppression of macromolecular (MM) signals at 3 T is proposed. MM-suppressed Hadamard encoding and reconstruction of MEGA (Mescher-Garwood)-edited spectroscopy (HERMES) consists of four sub-experiments (TE = 80 ms), with 20-ms editing pulses applied at: (A) 4.56 and 1.9 ppm; (B) 4.56 and 1.5 ppm; © 1.9 ppm; and (D) 1.5 ppm. One Hadamard combination (A + B - C - D) yields GSH-edited spectra, and another (A - B + C - D) yields GABA-edited spectra, with symmetric suppression of the co-edited MM signal. MM-suppressed HERMES, conventional HERMES and separate Mescher-Garwood point-resolved spectroscopy (MEGA-PRESS) data were successfully acquired from a (33 mm)3 voxel in the parietal lobe in 10 healthy subjects. GSH- and GABA-edited MM-suppressed HERMES spectra were in close agreement with the respective MEGA-PRESS spectra. Mean GABA (and GSH) estimates were 1.10 ± 0.15 i.u. (0.59 ± 0.12 i.u.) for MM-suppressed HERMES, and 1.13 ± 0.09 i.u. (0.66 ± 0.09 i.u.) for MEGA-PRESS. Mean GABA (and GSH) differences between MM-suppressed HERMES and MEGA-PRESS were -0.03 ± 0.11 i.u. (-0.07 ± 0.11 i.u.). The mean signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement of MM-suppressed HERMES over MEGA-PRESS was 1.45 ± 0.25 for GABA and 1.32 ± 0.24 for GSH. These results indicate that symmetric suppression of the MM signal can be accommodated into the Hadamard editing framework. Compared with sequential single-metabolite MEGA-PRESS experiments, MM-suppressed HERMES allows for simultaneous edited measurements of GSH and GABA without MM contamination in only half the scan time, and SNR is maintained.

NMR Biomed