Simultaneous editing of GABA and GSH with Hadamard-encoded MR spectroscopic imaging


To evaluate the feasibility of simultaneous MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutathione (GSH) in the human brain using Hadamard Encoding and Reconstruction of MEGA-Edited Spectroscopy (HERMES). Point RESolved Spectroscopy (PRESS)-localized MRSI was performed in GABA and GSH phantoms and in the human brain (n = 3) using HERMES editing and compared to conventional MEGA editing of each metabolite. Multiplet patterns, signal intensities, and metabolite crosstalk were compared between methods. GABA+ and GSH levels were compared between methods for bias and variability. Linear regression of HERMES-MRSI GABA+/H2 O and GSH/H2 O versus gray matter (GM) fraction were performed to assess differences between GM and white matter (WM). Phantom HERMES-MRSI scans gave comparable GABA+ and GSH signals to MEGA-MRSI across the PRESS-localized volume. In vivo, HERMES-reconstructed GABA+ and GSH values had minimal measurement bias and variability relative to MEGA-MRSI. Intersubject coefficients of variation (CV) from two regions within the PRESS-localized volume for HERMES and MEGA were 6-12% for GABA+ and 6-19% for GSH. Interregion CVs were 5-15% for GABA+ and 3-17% for GSH. The GABA+/H2 O and GSH/H2 O ratios were ~1.8 times higher and ~1.9 times higher, respectively, in GM than in WM. HERMES-MRSI of GABA+ and GSH was found to be practical in the human brain with minimal measurement bias and comparable variability to separate MEGA-edited acquisitions of each metabolite performed in double the scan time. The HERMES-MRSI is a promising method for simultaneously mapping the distribution of multiple low-concentration metabolites.

Magn Reson Med